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1 : Dream


[narrating] We all remember the bed time stories of our childhood. The shoe fit Cinderella, the frog was turned into a prince, sleeping beauty was awakened with a kiss. Once upon a time and then they lived happily ever after. Fairy tales. The stuff of dreams. the problem is, fairy tales don't come true. It's the other stories. The ones that start in dark and stormy nights and end in the unspeakable. The nightmares always seem to become the reality.




1 : Dream


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At first glance, it may not seem surprising that many multilinguals who juggle different languages during the day, and even people who are only beginning to learn a foreign language, also use those languages in their dreams. After all, the language we speak during the day generally carries over into our nights. A study of deaf people and people with hearing loss found, for example, that they communicated in dreams as they did when awake, through sign language.


A closer look at multilingual dreams reveals a more complex picture, however. For a start, instead of randomly replaying linguistic snippets from our day, our brain appears to mash them up with all sorts of daytime worries, memories and problems. It may even create entire dialogues in an unknown, fantasy language, or in one the dreamers have come across in waking life, but don't speak (in my dreams, I sometimes have lively conversations in Japanese, a language I've studied but failed to master in real life).


Sleep researchers say that the exact mechanics and function of such dreams are quite hard to establish, partly because dreams are generally still quite a mysterious phenomenon. What is much better understood, however, is how and why our brains process languages and even learn new words in our sleep. This sheds at least some light on the puzzle of multilingual dreaming.


It would be a nice explanation, but unfortunately, the integration and consolidation process happens during a phase known as deep sleep, or slow-wave sleep. This phase is characterised by slow brain waves and higher-frequency spindles. Complex dreams like my hotel dream tend to happen during a different phase, known as the Rapid Eye Movement (REM) phase.


"Some people argue that REM sleep has a role to play in this whole consolidation process, and that its role is to tidy things up, and maybe smooth over the rough edges as it were," Gaskell says. Referring to my dream, during which I slipped away from the party at one point to log on to a virtual BBC team meeting, he says: "That's a really classic situation, where some of your recent memories are linked in with much longer-term knowledge. It fits really nicely with that story [of dreams helping to consolidate memories]. But it is at the moment pretty hypothetical."


First, he and his team discovered that when we are asleep, we can still tell fake from real language. Sleeping participants were simultaneously played a recording of real speech in their native language into one ear, and meaningless, pseudo-speech into the other. Researchers recorded their brain activity, using electroencephalography (EEG), while this happened. The EEG results showed that the sleeping participants' brains focused on the real speech, but not the fake one. However, during the dream-intense REM phase, the participants tended to shut out or suppress the incoming speech. Koroma suggest this might have been because the brain was focusing on inner processes: "When we are deeply immersed in dreams, we shut down from things that can perturb our dreams."


In a separate study by the team, participants were played Japanese words in their sleep, along with sounds that hinted at their meaning. For example, the word "inu" (dog) was played together with a barking sound, and the word "kane" (bell) played along with the sound of ringing bells. Different words were played during two different phases of sleep: light sleep, and the dream-intense REM phase. Again, researchers recorded the participants' brain activity using EEG.


"Whenever we investigated REM sleep, so the phase where we have the most intense dreaming activity, we couldn't find solid evidence that there was learning," Koroma says. He adds that this doesn't mean we can't learn during that phase, just that more research is needed to understand if it's possible.


"It's entirely possible that during multilingual dreams, the brain is trying to connect those two languages," Züst says. But the chaotic, individual nature of dreams, and natural languages, makes it difficult to say anything more definitive.


Koroma points out that REM sleep is associated with problem-solving, and emotional regulation. In a similar vein, dreams may allow us to try out new words or phrases in different scenarios, he suggests, or explore emotions around the languages we speak.


Danuta Gabryś-Barker, a professor of psycholinguistics at the University of Silesia in Poland, comes to a similar conclusion in an analysis of multilingual people's dreams, suggesting that such dreams can express "fears and desires" around learning a foreign language, including the yearning to be a native-like speaker.


That idea would nicely chime with studies showing that wrestling with words or tasks in our dreams may help with creative word-play and problem-solving when awake, as well as emotional processing. But as Koroma and the others emphasise, it is a possibility, not proven fact.


Dreams can happen at any time during sleep. But you have your most vivid dreams during a phase called REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, when your brain is most active. Some experts say we dream at least four to six times a night.


There are many theories about why we dream, but no one knows for sure. Some researchers say dreams have no purpose or meaning. Others say we need dreams for our mental, emotional, and physical health.


Some dreams may help our brains process our thoughts and the events of the day. Others may just be the result of normal brain activity and mean very little, if anything. Researchers are still trying to figure out exactly why we dream.


Also, it could be harder to remember dreams because during REM sleep, our body may shut down systems in our brain that create memories. We may remember only those dreams that happen just before we wake, when certain brain activities are turned back on.


Write it down. Keep a notebook and pen next to your bed, and record your dream first thing every morning, while the memory is still fresh. Write down anything you recall and how it made you feel, even if you can remember only random pieces of information.


Dreams have fascinated humanity since the beginning of time and will probably continue to puzzle us. Science has allowed us to learn much about the human brain, but we may never know for sure the meanings behind our dreams.


One Team One Dream was the motto the Georgia equestrian team came into the season believing would help them achieve their goal of a first ever SEC Championship and National Championship double. The Bulldogs fell agonizingly short of those dreams; the senior class, however, is already looking back on their careers at the University fondly.


"'One Team. One Dream' means to me, that our combined efforts towards excellence make for a single unit of excellence. I know a lot of people wanted it to mean the dream of winning nationals but it's immature to make for a goal that requires a certain level of luck. This will only leave a defeated mindset and offset one's ability to achieve greatness in the future. The Judges loved one girl from the first day she stepped into the ring at nationals, and while she was an exceptional rider, had it been two other judges with different likes and dislikes, the results would have been different," Rodgers said. "I myself have had days where I neglected a complete maneuver while my opponent went without error and I won a point that was not mine to have. That's why it's important not to think too much of a win or a loss, because both over simplify your view of self if you hold all your value in results."


"One team, One dream represents how our team came together so much during this year. I've never experienced such a united team in my time at Georgia," Salazar said. "We didn't only have the same goals for the end of the year, but we also wished and hoped for success for each other. This year we truly became a family and I think that shows by the way we've bounced back from nationals."


Martin Luther King JROn August 28, 1963, some 100 years after President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation freeing the slaves, a young man named Martin Luther King climbed the marble steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. to describe his vision of America. More than 200,000 people-black and white-came to listen. They came by plane, by car, by bus, by train, and by foot. They came to Washington to demand equal rights for black people. And the dream that they heard on the steps of the Monument became the dream of a generation.


I have a dream that one day down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; that one day right down in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.


I have a dream that one day every valley shall be engulfed, every hill shall be exalted and every mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plains and the crooked places will be made straight and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.


Since this dream most likely relates to your desire to succeed and your worries about failing, you might have this dream anytime you face an event that provokes similar feelings. This could be an event like a job interview, a big date, or a research proposal.


These themes may show up clearly (masks and isolation) or more symbolically (bugs, which your brain might translate to virus), according to dream researcher Deirdre Barrett, PhD, in an interview with The Harvard Gazette. 041b061a72


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